The Misdiagnosis Of Adhd And What It Can Mean To You And Your Family

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has become the single most common diagnosis for children with problems concentrating in school or who consistently misbehave. The medical treatment for this condition consists of prescribed doses of stimulants, which increase mental activity and slow down the impulsive outbursts associated with ADHD. However, it is estimated that this diagnosis … Continue reading “The Misdiagnosis Of Adhd And What It Can Mean To You And Your Family”

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has become the single most common diagnosis for children with problems concentrating in school or who consistently misbehave. The medical treatment for this condition consists of prescribed doses of stimulants, which increase mental activity and slow down the impulsive outbursts associated with ADHD. However, it is estimated that this diagnosis is reached and medications are prescribed three times more often than is actually the case. Here, we will examine the misdiagnosis of ADHD and what it can mean to you and your family.

There are several problems associated with a misdiagnosis of ADHD. The first is that a child is often prescribed stimulants that are not necessary and carry the risk of serious health related complications. Taking these drugs when they are not needed can lead to heart disease, cause liver problems, create or enhance mental health problems such as anxiety disorder or depression, and much more.

The next issue is that a child who is misdiagnosed as having ADHD may not be receiving treatment for the real problem. Some things that can mimic the symptoms of ADHD include temporal lobe epilepsy, a form of epilepsy that causes “absence” seizures where it appears the child is simply daydreaming, depression, restless leg syndrome, learning disabilities, personality conflicts with a teacher, and even normal, high energy stages of childhood.

In all cases except that of this being a normal stage the child is going through, there are other medical and behavioral treatments and therapies that could eliminate the symptoms and address the child’s real problem without prescribing unnecessary stimulant medications.

Often, when a child is placed on medication for ADHD when it is not the real problem, the symptoms of ADHD go away, but so does the child’s personality. While this may be seen as an improvement to the behavior problems that led to the diagnosis, it actually harms the mental development of the child and inhibits the normal development of social skills that are needed later in life.

Many parents of children who have been misdiagnosed claim that their child is like a robot when taking the medication. He/she goes through the motions of every day life, but there is no spark or spontaneity to the child’s activities. These children often tend to play alone or to stop playing altogether.

Sadly, with so many homes where both parents have to work, these symptoms can go unnoticed for long periods. This means that the child often continues to take unnecessary medication for an extended time frame that allows for more damage to be done to the brain and organs of the developing child.

While ADHD is a valid developmental and behavioral disorder, there is not an empirical test that can positively determine whether a child does or does not suffer from it. The criteria for the diagnosis are all subjective and comparative, meaning that one person may look at a child and reach the diagnosis of ADHD while another sees a perfectly normal child. This leads to a large number of misdiagnoses of ADHD and harms a large number of children and teens each year. Learn about a little known ADHD treatment alternative.

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Symptoms Of Bladder Cancer In Women – Act on them before its Too Late!

As a very common perception, men are more likely to get affected from bladder cancer. However, recent studies have shown that women are also under high risk of cancer in the bladder. Though many of the signs and symptoms are not considered as prominent occurrence of cancer, these signs are important alarms and should not be ignored. Some vital symptoms indicating bladder cancer in women are

• Hematuria – Presence of blood in urine is termed as hematuria. During the very early stages of bladder cancer, blood is not visible. Only pathological tests under a microscope can detect the presence of blood. During the advancement of disease, blood is visible and sometimes even blood clots are found in urine.
• Frequency of urination – Most women who suffer from bladder cancer complain of very frequent urge for urination. At times, this urge does not result in actual urine discharge and gives a feeling of uneasiness.
• Pain – Urination becomes painful and the patient complains about the very low quantities of urine discharge. This condition increases their visits to the restroom.
• Growth of mass – During severe stages of cancer, a sizable mass is felt during physical inspection. The location of the mass is in the pelvic cavity and may add abdominal pain to a few patients.

The presence of all these signs is indicative of cancer in the bladder. However for further confirmation various pathological and medical tests are available.

Diagnosis of symptoms bladder cancer in women

In case you experience any symptoms bladder cancer, there are various types of tests that can identify the presence of cancerous growth in the bladder. It is a better idea to visit a healthcare expert for accurate diagnosis. Some of the prominent tests conducted to diagnose bladder cancer are:

• Physical examination – Pelvis, rectum, and abdomen is examined for occurrences of abnormal mass growth.
• Urine tests – Pathological tests of urine can identify cancerous or malignant cells. Even trace of blood presence is detectable in urine tests.
• Cystoscopy – In this test, urethral insertion of a tube is done to inspect the bladder wall. Even doctors can collect samples of cells for further laboratory tests. The inserted tube has a light and a micro-camera for precise viewing.
• Pyelogram – A colored pigment is induced into the blood to make bladder visible under X-rays.

Several options are available for early diagnosis and further accurate treatment. Like in all cancer cases, early diagnosis leads to a faster recovery.

Hansen’s Disease – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

The term Hansen disease instead of leprosy is now preferred by some experts, because of it being less perjorative. Hansen disease was named in honor of the Norwegian physician, Gerhard Armauer Henrik Hansen, who in 1873 discovered the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae, the first microbe found to be the causative agent of a human disease. Hansen’s discovery demonstration of the bacterial cause of anthrax by 3 years. Hansen’s research helped to establish fundamental principles in microbiology, immunology, and public health.

Hansen disease, is a chronic infectious disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations. It is a chronic granulomatous disease of the skin, mucous membranes, nerves, lymph nodes, eyes, and internal organs such as the liver, spleen, and testicles. Hansen disease and is one of the oldest known diseases of mankind. It is curable but if untreated can lead to severe deformities.


Hansen’s disease in an attempt to eliminate the centuries-old stigma, is transmitted generally by direct, person-to-person contact, usually repetitive, over a prolonged period of time. However, it is one of the least contagious of all communicable diseases, and only about four to five percent of the world’s population is even susceptible to it.

The most common cause of hammertoe is a muscle/tendon imbalance. This imbalance, which leads to a bending of the toe, results from mechanical (structural) changes in the foot that occur over time in some people


Hansen’s disease attacks the nerves in the hands and feet and cause them to become numb. A person may get cuts or burns on the numb parts and not know it, leading to infections which cause permanent damage. Fingers and toes may be lost to infection. Serious infections in the feet may require amputation. Paralysis may cause the fingers and toes to curl up permanently.

Hansen’s disease can cause a wide variety of skin abnormalities, including spots or areas which are thicker than normal and have lighter skin color than normal. These spots may have increased, lessened or missing touch and/or temperature sensation. Hansen’s disease can also involve the interior nasal surfaces , causing nasal congestion and nosebleeds. Long-term complications may include loss of digits, facial changes and secondary infection.

Once infected with the mycobacteria, the average incubation period is two to three years, but it can range from 6 months to 40 years or longer. In 90% of patients the first sign of the disease is a feeling of numbness, which may precede skin lesions by a number of years. Temperature is the first sensation lost, followed by light touch, pain and then deep pressure. Sensory loss usually begins in the extremities (toes and fingertips).


The best way to prevent the spread of leprosy is the early diagnosis and treatment of people who are infected. For household contacts, immediate and annual examinations are recommended for at least five years after last contact with a person who is infectious.

Dapsone is the first effective drug against Hansen’s disease but the bacteria developed resistance against the drug. Hence in 1970s the scenario shifted from monotherapy to Multiple Drug Therapy (MDT). The drugs used in WHO-MDT are a combination of rifampicin (600mg once a month), clofazimine (300 mg once a month and 50mg daily) and dapsone (100mg daily) for one year for Multibacillary (MB) leprosy patients and rifampicin (600mg once a month),and dapsone (100mg daily) for six months for Paucibacillary leprosy patients.

Lung Cancer – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth may lead to metastasis, invasion of adjacent tissue and infiltration beyond the lungs. The vast majority of primary lung cancers are carcinomas of the lung, derived from epithelial cells. Lung cancer, the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and the second most common in women,[1][2] is responsible for 1.3 million deaths worldwide annually.

What causes lung cancer?


The incidence of lung cancer is strongly correlated with cigarette smoking, with about 90% of lung cancers arising as a result of tobacco use. The risk of lung cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked over time; doctors refer to this risk in terms of pack-years of smoking history (the number of packs of cigarettes smoked per day multiplied by the number of years smoked).

Lung cancer most commonly begins in the cells that line your lungs. Smoking causes the majority of lung cancers — both in smokers and in people exposed to secondhand smoke. But lung cancer also occurs in people who never smoked. In these cases, there may be no clear cause of lung cancer. Doctors have identified factors that may increase the risk.

Cancer that originates from lung cells is called a primary lung cancer. Primary lung cancer can start in the airways that branch off the trachea to supply the lungs (the bronchi) or in the small air sacs of the lung (the alveoli). Cancer may also spread (metastasize) to the lung from other parts of the body (most commonly from the breasts, colon, prostate, kidneys, thyroid gland, stomach, cervix, rectum, testes, bone, or skin).

Lung Cancer Symptoms

Lung cancer symptoms are commonly not experienced until the disease had advanced, sometimes delaying diagnosis. The symptoms of lung cancer also mimic the symptoms of other benign illnesses.

The most common lung cancer symptoms experienced are :

Onset of wheezing

Recurrent pneumonia or bronchitis

A persistent cough that does not go away

A sign is also an indication that something is not right in the body. But signs are defined as things that can be seen by a doctor, nurse, or other health care professional. Fever, rapid breathing rate, and abnormal breathing sounds heard through a stethoscope may be signs of pneumonia.

Lung Cancer Diagnosis

To help find the cause of symptoms, your doctor will evaluate your medical history, smoking history, exposure to environmental and occupational substances, and family history of cancer. Your doctor also will perform a physical exam and may recommend a chest X-ray and other tests. If lung cancer is suspected, sputum cytology — the microscopic examination of cells obtained from a deep-cough sample of mucus in the lungs — is a simple test that may be useful in detecting lung cancer. To confirm the presence of lung cancer, your doctor must examine tissue.

How can I prevent lung cancer?

The best way to prevent lung cancer is to quit smoking, or to never start in the first place. You should try and avoid being around people who are smoking; and also avoid pipes, cigars, and marijuana. If you live in an area with radon, you should make sure there is adequate ventilation in your basement to get rid of it. Use a detector to make sure the radon levels are low.

Treatment Of Lung Cancer

Many factors must be taken into account to determine the best treatment for an individual diagnosed with lung cancer. The specific type of cell, the location of the lung tumor, the stage of the disease with possible metastasis (spread to other parts of the body), and the general health of the individual must be considered. Various treatment plans may include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and/or surgery.

Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis of Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis

Most people have in their colons small pouches that bulge outward through weak spots, like an inner tube that pokes through weak places in a tire. Each pouch is called a diverticulum. Pouches are diverticula. The condition of having diverticula is called diverticulosis. About half of all Americans age 60 to 80, and almost everyone over age 80, have diverticulosis.

When the pouches become infected or inflamed, the condition is called diverticulitis. This happens in 10 to 25 percent of people
with diverticulosis. Diverticulosis and diverticulitis are also called diverticular disease.

Low Residue Diet for Diverticulitis
Grain Products:
·    enriched refined white bread, buns, bagels, english muffins
·    plain cereals e.g. Cheerios, Cornflakes, Cream of Wheat, Rice Krispies, Special K
·    arrowroot cookies, tea biscuits, soda crackers, plain melba toast
·    white rice, refined pasta and noodles
·    avoid whole grains

Fruits:fruit juices except prune juice
Vegetables:Vegetable juices
Meat and Protein Choice:well-cooked, tender meat, fish and eggs
Dairy:as directed by your healthcare providers

Causes of Diverticulitis
It’s believed that most diverticula are caused by unnoticed muscle spasms, or by pairs of muscles that don’t contract in a synchronized manner. This puts brief but intense pressure on the mucosal layer, causing pressure at the weakest points. The weakest points are the areas around blood vessels that pass through the inside of the wall of the large intestine (also called the colon).
Older people have frailer tissue lining the bowel – this is probably why they have more diverticula.

Most people who have diverticulosis don’t have any symptoms, but some have mild cramps, constipation or bloating. Diverticulitis causes more severe symptoms, including any of the following, but particularly the first two:

·    Steady abdominal pain
·    Tenderness to pressure in the lower abdomen
·    Fever
·    Nausea
·    Vomiting
·    Chills
·    Cramping
·    Change in bowel habits (constipation or diarrhea)
·    Rectal bleeding
·    Sharper pain with breathing or jarring movements such as walking.

Treatment Involved for Diverticulitis
Diverticular disease is confirmed by a barium enema which usually shows the tell-tale pockets. If there is still doubt about the diagnosis, a narrow tube may be passed up through the anus to inspect the lining of the bowel (colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy). Unless acute diverticulitis is actually occurring, a high-fibre diet and sometimes laxatives are used to treat the condition. Fibrous fruits such as apples and pears are best, together with fresh vegetables and grains. Pain due to spasm in the
colon is treated with anti-spasmodic drugs (such as mebeverine) and analgesics (such as paracetamol).

Points to Remember
·    Diverticulosis occurs when small pouches, called diverticula, bulge outward through weak spots in the colon (large intestine).
·    The pouches form when pressure inside the colon builds, usually because of constipation.
·    Most people with diverticulosis never have any discomfort or symptoms.
·    The most likely cause of diverticulosis is a low-fiber diet because it increases constipation and pressure inside the colon.

If diverticulitis is treatable at home, patients should expect to remain quiet for a few days. Antibiotics will be prescribed to help kill the bacteria causing the infection. Patients will also temporarily need to avoid all whole grains, fruits and vegetables, so the colon can rest and heal. Once symptoms improve (often in 2 to 4 days) patients can gradually start increasing the amount of high-fiber foods in their diet.